Fungal activity

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A large body of research has focussed on the antifungal and anti-oomycete properties of CLPs. Orfamide A, nunapeptin-(SP) or sessilin-(T) had little or no detectable effect on the growth or morphology of hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani while for viscosinamide-(V), pseudophomin-(V), tensin-(A), pseudomycin-(SM), the tolaasins, entolysin, and nunamycin-(SM) growth inhibition was clearly observed (Harrison et al., 1991Hansen et al., 2000Nielsen et al., 2000Pedras et al., 2003Bassarello et al., 2004Gross et al., 2007Kruijt et al., 2009Michelsen et al., 2015bMa et al., 2016a). Remarkably, co-production of orfamide A and sessilin-(T) by Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a did inhibit growth of R. solani whereas individually, they did not (Olorunleke et al., 2015a). The pseudophomins-(V), the pseudomycins-(SM), and WLIP-(V) all displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phoma lingam (Pedras et al., 2003Lo Cantore et al., 2006). Syringomycin E inhibited growth of the postharvest green mold of citrus fruits (Penicillium digitatum) (Bull et al., 1998). In addition, this lipopeptide showed antagonistic activities against the human-pathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Fusarium moniliforme, and F. oxysporum (De Lucca et al., 1999). Finally, WLIP-(V), putisolvin, syringotoxin-(SM), syringopeptin 22A, syringopeptin 25A, and syringomycin E and tolaasin all inhibit the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea with different potencies (Grgurina et al., 2005Andolfi et al., 2008Kruijt et al., 2009).